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  • Fig Mosaic Virus (FMV) Prevention and Control

    There is ongoing research in Commercial fig growing regions of the world on Fig Mosaic Disease (FMD) caused by Fig Mosaic Virus (FMV), the causes, control and prevention. What is known is that the Viral symptoms are caused by multiple viruses (a @@@@tail) which can infect the fig trees individually or as a group. There are two (2) known vectors of the viruses, Aceria ficus Cotte fig mites that have evolved to feed on Ficus Carica (fig trees) and can infect with as little as one feeding and by Fig Growers propagating infected cuttings and transporting the main vector (fig mites) to different temperate regions

    All the documented evidence since 1955 and current DNA testing concludes that...
    Fig Mites can and do transmit FMV from infected to uninfected trees.
    Fig Mites feeding causes russetting, leaf spots and localized damage.
    FMV is not transmitted through mite eggs.
    Fig mosaic virus infects the fig trees.
    Cloning and grafting infected plant material will produce infected trees.

    Fig leaf mosaic, leaf and fig necrotic spot are often symptoms of FMV infection(s).
    Fig Mites are related to spiders and ticks. They do not cut, tear, rip or chew plant material, they insert their "mouth parts" through the plant cell membranes and suck out the plant fluids, in the process their "saliva" inoculates the plant cells with Mosaic Viruses but only if they had been feeding on other infected plants. They can survive in unopened dormant buds and figs, but can only survive in temperate zones and do not "over winter" in colder zones. Fig Growers graft, propagate and circulate infected plant material. They also imported fig cultivars, Capri figs and Fig wasps from the Mediterranean to improve the commercial fig industry. Due to the fact that Fig Mites can survive in figs and closed buds they have been relocated with the wasps and plant material to their new homes in these temperate zones. This is not an indictment, just a statement of known documented facts.

    I've observed that if visibly healthier limbs are propagated the young trees start out looking healthier, than when obviously diseased limbs (cuttings) are used. Another observation is that when a visibly infected tree is cut back to the soil line the new shoot that develops from the roots and buried trunk will often be visibly healthier that the original growth. IMO, many of the FMD symptoms that are attributed to FMV are actually nutrient deficiencies and can be avoided with application of balanced fertilizers, macro and micro nutrients and a better adjusted pH range. I've been able to produce FMD mottled and deformed leaves in visibly healthy trees by simply changing the pH and reducing the available nutrients with a water soluble fertilizer. When the pH was restored and the nutrients increased, the leaves and growth returned to normal. The control trees that were furnished with balanced nutrients and a good pH range were over 4 feet tall and were always visibly healthy while the tests were less than 18" tall and starting to put on healthier growth and increased nodal spacing only after the pH and nutrient adjustment.

    There are plants and cultivars with severe cases of infection(s), deformed leaves and severe mottling, but with proper care most infected cultivars may still be productive. If the plants are provided with proper nutrition, water, soil (growing medium) and sun, they will grow to their optimum genetic capability even with severe FMV infection(s).



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    FMV:
    http://ucanr.edu/repositoryfiles/ca1101p12-66858.pdf
    http://www.ourfigs.com/filedata/fetch?id=15369
    http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r261100611.html
    http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/19548/PDF
    http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agric...-6-0807-20.pdf
    http://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/47395/PDF
    http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/volumes/0110/011017.pdf
    http://oregonstate.edu/dept/nurspest...saic_virus.htm

    Soil Nutrients and deficiency
    http://www.mgofmc.org/docs/nutrientdeficiency.pdf
    http://extension.arizona.edu/sites/e...ubs/az1106.pdf
    http://www.extension.umn.edu/agricul...U-1731-F-1.pdf
    http://www.growrealfood.com/gardenin...-deficiencies/
    https://www.unce.unr.edu/publication...002/fs0265.pdf


    Please comment with any additional info and your prevention methods
    Last edited by AscPete; 07-12-2015, 11:54 AM. Reason: Added Quote to OP
    Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

  • #2
    Great overview, Pete. Very thorough and useful.

    This has been my experience too:
    "IMO, many of the FMD symptoms that are attributed to FMV are actually nutrient deficiencies and can be avoided with application of balanced fertilizers, macro and micro nutrients and a better adjusted pH range."

    I've never checked pH but my trees are typically well fed whether in ground or in pot, and if in pot then decently held in mostly peat and bark with ag lime added AND typically rooting in the ground through holes drilled in sides.

    If FMV shows usually a stressor culprit can be found: too dense growing medium (lack of oxygen) or too much or too little fertilizer or water.
    Tony WV 6b
    https://mountainfigs.net/

    Comment


    • AscPete
      AscPete commented
      Editing a comment
      Thanks.

    • Niagarafigs
      Niagarafigs commented
      Editing a comment
      Azomite will help? Or just kill it?

  • #3
    Do all figs want the same pH level or do ones from different regions like different levels.

    What do you think the optimal level is for most figs?

    I seem to be able to grow nice trees that seem reluctant to bear many fruits. I have avoided fertilizers since I was afraid of having to much growth and no figs but even without fertilization I get lots of growth. Suggestions? By the way my entire fig growing area about 60' x 90' is completely and heavily mulched with about six inches of oak tree leaves and it is kept weed free.

    Is there any truth that if you heavily prune a fig it will bear heavily the next year?
    Darkman AKA Charles in Pensacola South of I-10 zone 8b/9a

    Comment


    • #4
      Darkman, you may want to check the ph in your fig orchard and if it is in the acidic range adjust the ph by adding lime. Your fig trees will probably benefit from a more neutral ph, around 6.0-6.5. Pruning a fig tree will stimulate more new growth which should mean more figs produced on the new growth. They say it's better to prune some yearly instead of waiting several years and severely pruning them back.
      Jennings, Southwest Louisiana, Zone 9a

      Comment


      • noss
        noss commented
        Editing a comment
        Darkman, Oak leaves are acidic and so are pine needles and pine bark. Your soil may already have an abundance of nitrogen in it, as well, which will inhibit fruit production. Our soil seems to be like that.

        I was fertilizing the Celeste tree out back and it was heading for orbit with poor fig production. We cut her down this spring, but already, Figzilla is sprouting out of old, very thick wood. We cut her back last year and before we knew it, she had put up tops that were over the height of our roofline. This year, we cut her almost to the ground. I don't think Celestes like to be cut down, or even cut back. It will be interesting to see what she does this year.

        noss

    • #5
      Last year I potted up (in a 15 gal SIP) a 5', what I believe to be "Adriatic"...taken from a mother tree as a sucker the fall before. All leaves were exhibiting characteristics of FMD...mottling, slight deformity but still a healthy tree. As the season developed I started taking daily photos of one particular leaf to see if there would be any change...and I started feeding...through the SIP and daily fillups....EC 1.5, PH 6.5...all season (hydroponic food...water nutrition). No change in the leaf, other than a darkening of the green indicating a good use of the food but the mottling did not change...same map.

      The tree put on 2-4' of growth over the season, all leaves showing some mottling...but with good growth.
      Now comes this year...and the first leaves come out...minor mottling...but only exhibited on one branch...and the rest of the tree...nice healthy green leaves with no mottling...yet....the door just opened to this season but the feeding indicated what I had suspected....the tree hadn't been fed prior to the SIP....and the mother tree has never been fed.....and with the stress of ripping it away from it's mother....stress + lack of nutrients

      I'm following the cuttings I have of this tree closely. The mother is a notorious producer of good quality figs, shy of the open eye...but a good quality despite the FMD.

      More yet to come...Thanks for starting this Pete
      Ross B. Santa Rosa Calif zone 9b, wish list: CdD Blanc, Igo, Palmata, Sucrette, Morroco, Galicia Negra

      Comment


      • AscPete
        AscPete commented
        Editing a comment
        Maintaining the pH and available macro and micro nutrients has produced much healthier trees, but leaves that have mosaic symptoms will retain the visible symptoms even if they get larger and thicker. I've found that establishing new growth (pruning back) close to or at the soil line will usually result in healthier tree growth.

      • rusty hooks
        rusty hooks commented
        Editing a comment
        One thing noted last year...once the mosaic map on the leaf was set there was no changing it...over a series of 15-20 photos of the same leaf...same map every time. It appeared as if the cellular capability was established during leaf formation and held at that state all season. New leaves out this year with no FMD mapping on the leaf...Just checked this out with an LED flashlight...mapping is there...but in a much more subdued formation over most of the tree. Deformation is very slight...I'll keep an eye on this through the season...same feeding schedule this year...SIP's Hydro food, buffered ph

      • noss
        noss commented
        Editing a comment
        It also seems that the shoots that come up from the soil with trees with FMV, are stronger and more vigorous.

        I've even noticed that trees that don't exhibit FMV, when they put shoots up from the soil, those seem stronger, too.

    • #6
      Charles,
      The pH for in ground fig trees can vary greatly, but the best range for nutrient absorption and growth is between 6.5 - 7.5.
      For potted trees the same applies, but its usually easier to maintain at 6.0 - 7.0 pH. Figs also need increased Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium for good growth and fig production, I'm currently using Ironite Mineral Supplement which shows visible improvements in tree health and growth

      Many fig trees are rarely pruned, which often results in excess vegetative growth and reduced fig production due to excessive # of branches. Establishing the scaffold branches and fruiting branches will enable easier pruning and increased future fig production, http://www.ourfigs.com/forum/figs-ho...-espalier-form

      Since figs are produced on this season's growth, heavy pruning will result in the growth of many dormant buds which may or may not mean increased fig production. If the total # of buds (branches) are not reduced (pruned) the result could be excess vegetative growth and a reduced fig production.
      Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

      Comment


      • #7
        Until I joined, and read about this subject on a few of these Fig Forums, I never knew FVM/D existed, or, could infect fig trees. I would venture a guess that a very large percentage, if not all, the older fig trees growing (in ground) here in The Bronx, including the surrounding areas, Queens, Westchester, Brooklyn, Staten Island, etc. are all FMV-free....growing with, or without, nutrient deficiencies, etc. Local trees may not be great producers, are often poorly grown and maintained, and most are pruned incorrectly, but they are all clean, lush, and vigorous. In fact, the only fig trees that I have ever seen, showing symptoms of FMV, were in my collection. They weren't in my collection for very long, either. These mail-order trees were dumped as soon as the first signs of FMV showed on the leaves. I simply refuse to deal with any diseased trees, whatever the variety....but, that's me. Now, I grow only Tissue-Cultured trees, or, "clean" trees propagated from local sources. I am a fig eater, not a collector. I'd rather grow 3-4 great trees, than grow trees that perform poorly.

        This thread suggests that with correct culture and proper nutrition, symptomatic trees will probably improve, health-wise....maybe. That's good news.

        Interesting to read all the latest info and opinions.


        Frank
        Last edited by BronxFigs; 04-21-2015, 06:48 AM.

        Comment


        • #8
          Darkman, Oak leaves turn your soil acid so some dolomitic limestone will help.
          Bob C. KC, MO Zone 6a. Wanted: Martineca Rimada, Galicia Negra, Fioroni Ruvo, De La Reina - Pons, Tauro, BFF, Sefrawi, Sbayi, Mavra Sika , Fillaciano Bianco, Corynth, Souadi, Acciano Purple, LSU Tiger, LSU Red, Cajun Gold, BB-10 any great tasting fig

          Comment


          • Darkman
            Darkman commented
            Editing a comment
            Thanks I guess I need to have it checked however I would be surprised if it is below 6.0. Regardless I think I will throw some lime at it as I know it is not near alkaline. I will also send off some samples as I want to check my blueberry area too! Maybe some Ironite too!

        • #9
          Very nice post Pete. Really good information.
          I wanted to ask....has anyone had first hand experience with FMV being spread by mites? I have over 25 varieties of fig cuttings from various sources that are growing out fine. Some started out beautifully with no signs of FMV and some that were slowed from the get go....now all of the small rooted plants are showing a little sign of blotchy leaves. They are all kept next to each other in 5 gallon nursery pots. Is it nutrition deficiencies or was FMV spread....
          Quy
          SoCal, Zone 9b

          Comment


          • AscPete
            AscPete commented
            Editing a comment
            Since FMV is spread on a cellular level, new growth would exhibit symptoms, if the infection was severe (a @@@@tail).
            Its more probable that there is a pH or Nutrient imbalance. It may also be a simple case of rust inoculation of the leaves. A few pictures would help to diagnose the problem.

        • #10
           Fig Mites are the only way FMV spreads. Some of the other viruses can be spread by tools, or mealy bugs, but FMV is only spread to a different plant by the mite. These are pics of Fig Mite symptoms, they disappeared after treating with miticides and briefly reappeared on a couple plants that did not get good spray coverage (end of the row and tank). FMV was passed to some plants that had previously shown no symptoms.
          Older affected leaves:
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          New healthy (Fig Mite free) growth:
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          Older affected leaf:
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          New growth:
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          Plants in the greenhouse
          Definitive end to spotting symptoms 1 week after treatment:
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          FMV shows after mite symptoms are gone (vein clearing at 5 o'clock):
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          Browning and spotting caused by Fig Mite on aged leaves:
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          New leaves, one week after treatment:
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          Similar spots on figs of infested plant, "hairy" varieties showed spots on figs while smooth skinned varieties had very few:
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          Detecting symptoms is easier than detecting the mite itself, the pic posted in the OP of eriophyid mites shows them clearly, but on figs they are harder to see because of "leaf hairs", what gives the leaf a velvet to sandpaper feel. They are slightly smaller than these hairs and live in between them, they do not move much and the viewing area on the scope is very small. Finding a single one on a leaf is like the metaphorical needle in a haystack, an infestation is more obvious (if one plant is infested all others in the area should be treated as a precaution).
          .

          Comment


          • 71GTO
            71GTO commented
            Editing a comment
            I had always here they would not survive cold climates. So in those pictures of leaves you had the signs of FMV, but one you treated the leaves with something to kill mites within the same season you started getting healthy leaves?

          • hoosierbanana
            hoosierbanana commented
            Editing a comment
            I treated something like 150 plants, not all had mite symptoms but were in close to proximity to others that did. As soon as the mites were dead (I checked with my microscope) the spotting stopped forming on new leaves. Some of the plants that had mite symptoms showed FMV after that (or it became more apparent), and some went back to making perfectly healthy leaves.

          • AscPete
            AscPete commented
            Editing a comment
            Brent,
            One thing that I forgot to mention here (it was mentioned @ F4F) was that in my initial foray into growing figs I was concerned about possible transmittal of FMV by local leaf eating insects, Diatomaceous Earth was dusted on the leaves to protect the trees. It may have been possible that those initial treatments may have killed the adult Mite population.

        • #11
          Thanks Brent, my plants look exactly like yours(the before pictures) i guess i have to look for some type of mite pesticide. Thanks again for posting the pictures!
          Quy
          SoCal, Zone 9b

          Comment


          • hoosierbanana
            hoosierbanana commented
            Editing a comment
            You are welcome. Avid and Forbid (you can buy sample sizes on eBay, the application rate is very low) are probably the fastest and surest options and Neem oil the safest and slowest.

          • AscPete
            AscPete commented
            Editing a comment
            Neem Oil will kill most mites, but has to be repeated at least once (twice would be better) within 5 - 10 days to kill the hatching eggs. The added benefit of Neem Oil is that its also a natural fungicide and broad spectrum insecticide, it will reduce fungal infections.

        • #12

          Brent,
          IMO, some of your pictures are more indicative of Rust infection. Its possible the plants have FMV, but some of the blotching and "Brown" spots may be due to Rust inoculation of the leaves.

          Leaves with Visible Fig Mosaic and Rust. Rust spread was halted with applications of Copper fungicide.
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          Leaves with visible Rust symptoms (thick and thin leaf cultivars) including mosaic of a thin leaf cultivar. Rust spread was halted with applications of Copper fungicide.
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          Visible Fig Mosaic symptoms at UC Davis.
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          Rust inoculation of young leaves
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          It would help diagnosis if there were pictures of the underside of the leaves, if there are tan to brown discolorations just below the mosaic areas, the probability of Rust as the cause increases.
          Last edited by AscPete; 04-23-2015, 11:11 AM.
          Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

          Comment


          • #13
            Pete, copper hydroxide failed to clear these symptoms earlier in the season. The miticides did clear them on every single affected plant. I have none of these symptoms so far this season and never saw them prior to 2 seasons ago.

            Another name for the Fig Mite is the Fig Rust Mite, they cause superficial browning of the leaf hairs that vaguely resembles rust. The small dark brown spots on the leaves above are rust and will form spores on the underside of the leaf that can be seen with the naked eye, the larger pale spots do not form spores.

            I did an informal experiment (just for my peace of mind) on a plant with rust late last season, rubbing an infected leaf with spores showing onto a small expanding leaf, it did show a small amount of deformity but I attributed that to mechanical damage, no spots resembling the ones I showed above ever formed. I did not mention it because I thought the pics of "the cure" I showed were compelling enough.

            I posted some pics 2 years ago in your thread titled "In Defense of FMV Infection" which showed the underside and agreed with you that these symptoms were caused by rust at the time, similarly to the pics you showed the spots were not as bad as they were on the top of the leaf. As I recall you did not scope for Fig Mites, and with them being microscopic you could not have known if they were causing symptoms or not. I also suggested that your symptoms could have subsided due to cool temperatures reducing the mite population, your experiment was at the end of the season...

            In any case, rust will not destroy the health of an entire collection, Fig Mites will. The quicker they are eradicated the better, looking back I wish I had been more skeptical and bought my handheld microscope much sooner. If you see these symptoms again I suggest you try a miticide.
            Last edited by hoosierbanana; 04-23-2015, 03:53 PM.
            .

            Comment


            • #14
              The only study on the interaction between the fig mite and FMV and their separate symptoms was done over 50 years ago. No pics were shown of fig mite symptoms in that study, they were vaguely described as leaf distortion, slight chlorosis and russetting.The pics they do show of FMV (presumably without the mite present) do not show the spotting symptoms at all.
              No other study on FMV that I have seen has removed fig mites as a variable to determine FMV symptoms alone.
              http://ucanr.edu/repositoryfiles/ca1101p12-66858.pdf
              .

              Comment


              • #15
                Brent,
                The Bonide Copper Fungicide is Copper Octanoate (Copper Soap). I did not use a mitecide, Neem oil or broad spectrum insecticide during my initial observations. The conclusion at the time was that controlling Rust and providing better plant nutrition was more important than the concern of Viral infection of the trees.

                Visible FMD symptomatic tree (deformed leaves and leaf mosaic) with increased cultural care and Rust treatment schedule.
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                Fig Mites and Rust mites are different species, there are over 1,800 different Eriophyid mite species, http://extension.usu.edu/files/publi...-mites2010.pdf . The Aceria Fici (Fig Mite) is the only species that is credited with spreading Fig Mosaic Virus. Rust mite cause surface discoloration that is usually only on the underside of leaves.

                In my observations Rust will not usually cause deformed leaves but will cause leaf mosaic symptoms if the leaf is inoculated early in its growth and the relative humidity is decreased slowing the actual rust progression and development of fruiting bodies. I've not observed any infestation of Eriophyid mites in the past, but as you know I was not looking for them. What I did see and document was the fruiting bodies that are typical of Fig Rust and their locations directly under the pale mosaic spots on the leaf. On thicker and older leaves there were fewer spots, but on thin and young leaves the pale (yellow) spots were extremely visible. Another observation is that Rust will cause much more damage to Leaves and trees that are infected with FMV or weakened by stress, even with scheduled fungicidal treatment.

                Rust Fruiting bodies visible on undersides of inoculated leaves.
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                I agree that at the first signs of trouble the leaves should be sprayed to kill mites and or rust before they spread and retard the growth of the fig trees. My current first line of defense is two (2) treatments of 70% Neem Oil @ 2 - 3 table spoons / gallon of water, with a backup (3rd treatment) of Bonide Liquid Copper(Copper Soap) @ the same concentration for rust, both are Certified Organic and can be used until harvest.
                Thanks for posting your observations and adding to the discussion.
                Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

                Comment


                • Darkman
                  Darkman commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Thank you for saying they are certified organic!

                  Are they labeled for use on figs.

                • AscPete
                  AscPete commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Charles,
                  No Fungicides are currently labeled for Figs (Ficus Carica). These are labeled for most garden vegetables and fruit trees.

              • #16
                Great thread. Thank you for all the information.
                Jeff in 6a

                Comment


                • AscPete
                  AscPete commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Thanks. You're welcome.

              • #17
                Pete, the same mite has been called several names, searching for the various synonyms brings up results:

                "Fig blister mite (Aceria ficus) – colourless to white, blister mites attack inside the fruit leaving rust coloured dry patches that affect eating quality. You won’t know they are there till you harvest the first fruits. If you find damaged fruit, destroy it to prevent subsequent fruits being infected as they ripen."
                .

                Comment


              • #18
                In Brent's attached document, http://ucanr.edu/repositoryfiles/ca1101p12-66858.pdf
                These tests demonstrated satisfactorily that the mosaic-like symptoms on figs did not result entirely from the toxic effect of mite feeding.
                It mentions the results of feeding, it doesn't show those results, but I think that it would be similar to spider mites feeding. The included table also shows that even at one (1) infected mite per plant 7 out of 10 plants exhibit Mosaic symptoms within 90 days, pointing to systemic viral infection.

                In the document, http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/agric...-6-0807-20.pdf in the OP
                The photos clearly depict viral mosaic symptoms and Necrosis (Leaf and fig) which is often an indicator of infection, but has no info on damage caused by mites feeding
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                Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

                Comment


                • hoosierbanana
                  hoosierbanana commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Well, the spots I had on figs, which I attributed to fig mites, pretty much ruined them. So if the symptoms are in fact FMV and return this season I will be putting down quite a few trees. I bet I never have the problem again though, and I did spend time planting and repotting affected trees as a wager.

              • #19
                These names are not preferred but have been used in the past.
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                .

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                • AscPete
                  AscPete commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Yes, The names have been used interchangeably in the past but have since been differentiated... http://taxondiversity.fieldofscience...10/aceria.html , 'this genus has over 800 species'

                • hoosierbanana
                  hoosierbanana commented
                  Editing a comment
                  The available information is spread out over several names as a result... They are synonyms and were grouped together, not differentiated into different species.

                • AscPete
                  AscPete commented
                  Editing a comment
                  Aceria Genus as a group are called Gall, Rust, Bud and Blister mites, dependent on the species and the plants that they inhabit, http://extension.usu.edu/files/publi...-mites2010.pdf . The Aceria ficus was ID'd as the definitive vector of FMV in the 1950's (Flock and Wallace 1955).

              • #20
                Here are some descriptions and pics of "chlorosis and distortion" caused by fig mites which I found searching for the name Eriophyes ficus. I had searched all the other common names previously but had not tried this Latin synonym.

                Moraceae Ficus carica L. Fig Mosaic virus disease caused by Eriophyes ficus Cotte (pi. 74) No proof was provided until 1955 that Eriophyesficus was the vector of a virus causing fig mosaic. This mite proved to be an efficient vector. In addition to transmitting this virus, it causes leaf distortion, chlorosis, russeting, and scarring of the eye scales and seeds of the fruit. It occasionally causes stunting of twigs and premature leaf drop. Eriophyesficus is a yellowish, slender, spindle-shaped mite; the female measures 160-202 microns long and the male about 140 microns. The featherclaws are five-rayed; the dorsal shield is marked with longitudinal ridges, the lateral ones forming closed cells anterior to the setal bases; the hysterosoma is covered with elliptical microtubercles; and the coverflap of the female genitalia has eight ribs. All stages and both sexes of the mites are found on the leaves, in the buds and fruit, and occasionally on the stems throughout the year. Eggs are laid in the buds, on branches, and on both surfaces of the leaves following bud burst in the spring. During July many mites move off the leaves to enter the fruit, where they lay eggs among the eye scales, and all stages are found inside the fruit. The mites overwinter in the buds. Fig mosaic virus has been reported from fig. The vector, E. ficus, is widespread on this plant in California; it also occurs in Oregon, Italy, and India. It is likely that both virus and mite will be found in most areas where figs are grown. References: Baker, 1939: 266; Cotte, 1920: 26; Keifer, 1938b: 303; Oldfield, 1970: 361. PLATE 74.-^4, B, Fig leaves, showing distortion and chlorosis; C, Eriophyesficus Cotte.
                Click image for larger version

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              • #21
                An important finding that was overlooked in one of the posted documents, for those of us also growing Mulberry trees...

                http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j...91665533,d.cWc
                Fig mosaic disease (FMD) was first described in 1933 from California (Condit and Horne, 1933) and it was suspected that the eriophyid mite Aceria ficus (Cotte) might transmit the causal agent due to its widespread occurrence on figs in that region. Although this fig mite was considered the probable vector of FMD, no evidence was provided until 1955 (Flock and Wallace, 1955). These authors observed that feeding injury by A.ficus might cause early symptoms that could be confused with a virus infection. To differentiate between the two disorders, eggs from a virus-free colony were transferred to one group of healthy seedlings and infective eriophyid mites to another group. Virus-free mites caused leaf distortion, chlorosis and russetting which were distinguishable from fig mosaic symptoms that appeared on plants fed on by the infective mites (Oldfield, 1970). This experiment showed that the FM agent(s) was not transmitted through the egg of A. ficus. Flock and Wallace (1955) demonstrated that mosaic symptoms persisted on figs in the absence of A. ficus by treating infested cuttings with sulphur to kill the mites. Since all stages and both sexes of this mite were found throughout the year (Baker, 1939), it has the potential for vectoring the FM agent(s) rapidly in the field. FMD has been reported only from species of the family Moraceae up to now. The host range of the FMD agent includes different Ficus species as reported by Condit and Horne (1933) and Burnett (1962), who also showed Ficus diversifolia Blume and Cudranea tricuspidata to be a reliable indicator plants for FMD. Vashisth and Nagaich (1965) showed that it also infects mulberry (Morus indica).
                Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

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                • #22
                  Thanks to everyone for sharing their research and results. I haven't run into these problems yet (and hope not to! ) but now I know what I should be looking for in the future. You guys are the BEST!!!
                  Windham CT zone 6a

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                  • #23
                    Thanks for that last Pete...I'm running out to check the fruitless mulberry just upwind from my shade structure.....Grrrr
                    Ross B. Santa Rosa Calif zone 9b, wish list: CdD Blanc, Igo, Palmata, Sucrette, Morroco, Galicia Negra

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                    • #24
                      There has been a couple of discussions recently on the forum about FMV, Leaf Mosaic and Fig necrotic spots.
                      Click image for larger version

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                      http://www.ourfigs.com/forum/figs-ho...infected-fruit
                      http://www.ourfigs.com/forum/figs-home/26952-fmv-mites
                      http://www.ourfigs.com/forum/figs-ho...uit-and-leaves

                      All the documented evidence since 1955 and current DNA testing concludes that...
                      Fig Mites can and do transmit FMV from infected to uninfected trees.
                      Fig Mites feeding causes russetting, leaf spots and localized damage.
                      FMV is not transmitted through mite eggs.
                      Fig mosaic virus infects the fig trees.
                      Cloning and grafting infected plant material will produce infected trees.

                      Fig leaf mosaic, leaf and fig necrotic spot are often symptoms of FMV infection(s).

                      http://www.researchgate.net/profile/...1ccd000000.pdf
                      Fig mosaic disease (FMD) was first described in 1933 from California (Condit and Horne, 1933) and it was suspected that the eriophyid mite Aceria ficus (Cotte) might transmit the causal agent due to its widespread occurrence on figs in that region. Although this fig mite was considered the probable vector of FMD, no evidence was provided until 1955 (Flock and Wallace, 1955). These authors observed that feeding injury by A. ficus might cause early symptoms that could be confused with a virus infection. To differentiate between the two disorders, eggs from a virus-free colony were transferred to one group of healthy seedlings and infective eriophyid mites to another group. Virus-free mites caused leaf distortion, chlorosis and russetting which were distinguishable from fig mosaic symptoms that appeared on plants fed on by the infective mites (Oldfield, 1970). This experiment showed that the FM agent(s) was not transmitted through the egg of A. ficus. Flock and Wallace (1955) demonstrated that mosaic symptoms persisted on figs in the absence of A. ficus by treating infested cuttings with sulphur to kill the mites. Since all stages and both sexes of this mite were found throughout the year (Baker, 1939), it has the potential for vectoring the FM agent(s) rapidly in the field.

                      Symptomatological observations of inoculated plants; All fig seedlings and three C. roseus seedlings out of five exposed to eriophyide mites showed mosaic, vein clearing and small yellowish spots after 10 days and 6 weeks, respectively (Fig. 1B and C). When symptomatic periwinkle shoots were grafted onto healthy periwinkles by chip-budding, similar symptoms appeared within two months, demonstrating that the symptoms were due to virus infection rather than to damage from mite feeding. No symptoms were observed in other test or control plants for one year. Similar transmission experiments from fig to periwinkle using viruliferous A. ficus had been done by Credi (1998) who reported the appearance of virus-like symptoms on a periwinkle plant after an incubation period of 40 days. This plant showed chlorotic spotting, mosaic and yellowing of the leaves and malformation of the laminae. It has already been reported that FMD is transmissible by A. ficus from infected to FMD-free fig seedlings (Proesler, 1969, 1972; Çaglayan et al., 2009) so that our data confirm its transmission from fig to periwinkle
                      http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/r261100611.html ,
                      MANAGEMENT; For tree propagation material, choose trees that do not show symptoms of mosaic. Examine propagated young plants carefully for symptoms of mosaic before planting them in the field. Never plant fig cultivars that are propagated from mosaic-infected trees. Controlling fig mites may help reduce incidence of this disease. FMD can be transmitted by vegetative propagation material and an eriophyd mite, A. ficus (Flock and Wallace, 1955), but not by seeds (Martelli et al., 1993).
                      Last edited by AscPete; 07-11-2015, 07:37 PM. Reason: added photo copy.
                      Pete R - Hudson Valley, NY - zone 5b

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                      • #25
                        This may have been covered, but if so I didn't see it. At least all together in one spot.
                        There is a difference in the occurance of leaf splotching. There is the blatant leaf discoloration, splotchiness, and disfiguration which occurs from the moment of leaf formation and will be there for the life of that leaf. This is FMV, straight forward.
                        Then there is the other thing, which occurs on leaves which can be fully formed, deep green, and healthy one day and then start developing splotches along with the younger leaves the next. To me, I could be wrong here but I don't think so, this is not FMV but something entirely different. Maybe rust or some other form of fungus.
                        I think it sounds like Fabio and I have the same thing going on. I have one section of trees(about 15) which 3 weeks ago had flawless leaves(all but one which I know shows mild FMV annually) and now all but 2 have at least some light colored splotching. Similar to Fabio, we also have had abnormal amounts of rain this year. One more addition, the 2 trees that are still showing no splotching, I know for sure one of them has some FMV because it displayed it in it's first year after rooting. These 2 "clean" appearing trees are on the end of the row which are the most out in the clear and get the best air circulation.
                        Given our normally dry air here, fungus is not a problem. I have recieved trees in the mail over the years with these same splotches on the leaves which either dropped or stayed as is and never developed further. So the spores are there, just waiting for the right time. A few of the splotches have a dark necrotic spot, but 98% are just a lighter colored splotch with no visible sign of anything different on the under-side of the leaf.
                        Calvin, Wish list is to finish working on the new house, someday.
                        Bored? Grab a rake, paint roller, or a cordless drill and come over!

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                        • hoosierbanana
                          hoosierbanana commented
                          Editing a comment
                          Calvin, if your trees look like Fabios, and symptoms have spread to healthy trees then you almost certainly have the fig mite, the 2 trees at the end will show it sooner or later...
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